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Prune Belly Syndrome is a rare congenital disorder with unknown aetiology, consisting of a triad of abdominal muscle wall weakness, undescended testes, and urinary tract abnormalities. We are unaware of any preceding report of Prune Belly Syndrome in Tanzania, and here we describe two cases reported in Kagera region. The first case is a 2 month old boy with the triad of Prune Belly Syndrome along with pectus carinatum who died due to septicaemia. This case posed a diagnostic challenge at birth and during the natal period. Paucity of comprehensive knowledge of congenital malformations at the peripheral health facilities may have also contributed to the diagnostic challenge in the first place.
The second case is a neonate who was referred to regional referral hospital where he was diagnosed with Prune Belly Syndrome at the age of four weeks. Because of limited capacity to manage congenital malformations at the regional referral hospital, he was referred to an urologist at the zonal referral hospital. However, inadequacies in supporting systems to the parents compounded care of the neonate with Prune Belly Syndrome. High index of Prune Belly Syndrome suspicion is needed in a resource limited setting in order to timely make diagnosis. There is
also a need to strengthen institutional and individual’s capacity for prenatal screening to detect congenital anomalies at an early stage of foetus development. Multidisciplinary management approach is necessary in order to improve the quality of life for patients with Prune Belly Syndrome. Psychosocial and medical support systems should be put in place in order to enhance preparedness for patient care in resource limited settings including equipping the referral hospital with different specialists and ensuring availability of basic investigations for patients.