Predictors of Surgical Site Infections among Patients Undergoing Open Urological Surgery at a Tertiary Hospital, Tanzania: A Cross Sectional Study

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Upendo O. Kibwana
Joel Manyahi
Victor Sensa
Sydney C Yongolo
Eligius Lyamuya


Background: Surgical Site Infection (SSI) is one of the major hospital acquired infections, highly associated with prolonged hospitalisation, morbidity and mortality. In open urological surgeries, little is known on magnitude and factors associated with development of SSI.
Methods and Materials: The intervention was a cross-sectional prospective observational study performed between August 2015 and March 2016 at Muhimbili National hospital (MNH), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Patients who underwent open urological surgery at MNH during the study period and met inclusion criteria were consecutively enrolled, and followed up for 30 days. Patients┬┤ and operative characteristics were recorded using standard structured questionnaires. Wound/ pus swabs were collected from patients with clinical evidence of SSI for bacteriological processing. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 20.
Results: Of 182 patients who underwent open urological surgery, 22% (40/182) developed SSI. Pre-operative urinary tract infection (aOR 9.73, 95%CI 3.93-24.09, p<.001) and contaminated wound class (aOR 24.997, 95%CI 2.58-242.42, p = .005) were independent predictors for development of SSI. Shaving within 30 hrs before surgical procedure was found to be protective for developing SSI (aOR 0.26, 95%CI 0.09-0.79, p=.02). Escherichia coli (20/40) was the most predominant pathogen in SSI followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (7/40) and S. aureus (6/40). Gram-negative bacteria were highly resistant to ceftriaxone, gentamicin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.
Conclusion: Surgical Site Infection was high in open urological interventions. Pre-operative urinary tract infection and contaminated wound class predicted SSI. Bacteria causing SSI were highly resistant to commonly used antibiotics.

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